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This chapter discusses the various types of objects that can be placed on the Calculator stack, how they are displayed, and how they are entered. (See section 19.5.7.1 Data Type Formats, for information on how these data types are represented as underlying Lisp objects.)

Integers, fractions, and floats are various ways of describing real numbers. HMS forms also for many purposes act as real numbers. These types can be combined to form complex numbers, modulo forms, error forms, or interval forms. (But these last four types cannot be combined arbitrarily: error forms may not contain modulo forms, for example.) Finally, all these types of numbers may be combined into vectors, matrices, or algebraic formulas.

6.1 Integers | The most basic data type. | |

6.2 Fractions | This and above are called rationals. | |

6.3 Floats | This and above are called reals. | |

6.4 Complex Numbers | This and above are called numbers. | |

6.5 Infinities | ||

6.6 Vectors and Matrices | ||

6.7 Strings | ||

6.8 HMS Forms | ||

6.9 Date Forms | ||

6.10 Modulo Forms | ||

6.11 Error Forms | ||

6.12 Interval Forms | ||

6.13 Incomplete Objects | ||

6.14 Variables | ||

6.15 Formulas |

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The Calculator stores integers to arbitrary precision. Addition, subtraction, and multiplication of integers always yields an exact integer result. (If the result of a division or exponentiation of integers is not an integer, it is expressed in fractional or floating-point form according to the current Fraction Mode. See section 8.4.3 Fraction Mode.)

A decimal integer is represented as an optional sign followed by a sequence of digits. Grouping (see section 8.7.2 Grouping Digits) can be used to insert a comma at every third digit for display purposes, but you must not type commas during the entry of numbers.

A non-decimal integer is represented as an optional sign, a radix
between 2 and 36, a ``#`' symbol, and one or more digits. For radix 11
and above, the letters A through Z (upper- or lower-case) count as
digits and do not terminate numeric entry mode. See section 8.7.1 Radix Modes, for how
to set the default radix for display of integers. Numbers of any radix
may be entered at any time. If you press `#` at the beginning of a
number, the current display radix is used.

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A *fraction* is a ratio of two integers. Fractions are traditionally
written "2/3" but Calc uses the notation ``2:3`'. (The `/` key
performs RPN division; the following two sequences push the number
``2:3`' on the stack: `2 : 3 RET`, or

Fractions may also be entered in a three-part form, where ``2:3:4`'
represents two-and-three-quarters. See section 8.7.5 Fraction Formats, for fraction
display formats.

Non-decimal fractions are entered and displayed as
`` radix#num:denom`' (or in the analogous three-part
form). The numerator and denominator always use the same radix.

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A floating-point number or *float* is a number stored in scientific
notation. The number of significant digits in the fractional part is
governed by the current floating precision (see section 8.2 Precision). The
range of acceptable values is from
10^-3999999 (inclusive)
to
10^4000000
(exclusive), plus the corresponding negative
values and zero.

Calculations that would exceed the allowable range of values (such
as ``exp(exp(20))`') are left in symbolic form by Calc. The
messages "floating-point overflow" or "floating-point underflow"
indicate that during the calculation a number would have been produced
that was too large or too close to zero, respectively, to be represented
by Calc. This does not necessarily mean the final result would have
overflowed, just that an overflow occurred while computing the result.
(In fact, it could report an underflow even though the final result
would have overflowed!)

If a rational number and a float are mixed in a calculation, the result
will in general be expressed as a float. Commands that require an integer
value (such as `k g` [`gcd`

]) will also accept integer-valued
floats, i.e., floating-point numbers with nothing after the decimal point.

Floats are identified by the presence of a decimal point and/or an
exponent. In general a float consists of an optional sign, digits
including an optional decimal point, and an optional exponent consisting
of an ``e`', an optional sign, and up to seven exponent digits.
For example, ``23.5e-2`' is 23.5 times ten to the minus-second power,
or 0.235.

Floating-point numbers are normally displayed in decimal notation with all significant figures shown. Exceedingly large or small numbers are displayed in scientific notation. Various other display options are available. See section 8.7.3 Float Formats.

Floating-point numbers are stored in decimal, not binary. The result of each operation is rounded to the nearest value representable in the number of significant digits specified by the current precision, rounding away from zero in the case of a tie. Thus (in the default display mode) what you see is exactly what you get. Some operations such as square roots and transcendental functions are performed with several digits of extra precision and then rounded down, in an effort to make the final result accurate to the full requested precision. However, accuracy is not rigorously guaranteed. If you suspect the validity of a result, try doing the same calculation in a higher precision. The Calculator's arithmetic is not intended to be IEEE-conformant in any way.

While floats are always *stored* in decimal, they can be entered
and displayed in any radix just like integers and fractions. The
notation `` radix#ddd.ddd`' is a floating-point
number whose digits are in the specified radix. Note that the `

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There are two supported formats for complex numbers: rectangular and
polar. The default format is rectangular, displayed in the form
``( real,imag)`' where

Polar complex numbers are displayed in the form ``(``r``;`
`theta``)`'
where `r` is the nonnegative magnitude and
`theta` is the argument
or phase angle. The range of
`theta` depends on the current angular
mode (see section 8.4.1 Angular Modes); it is generally between *-180* and
*+180* degrees or the equivalent range in radians.

Complex numbers are entered in stages using incomplete objects. See section 6.13 Incomplete Objects.

Operations on rectangular complex numbers yield rectangular complex
results, and similarly for polar complex numbers. Where the two types
are mixed, or where new complex numbers arise (as for the square root of
a negative real), the current *Polar Mode* is used to determine the
type. See section 8.4.2 Polar Mode.

A complex result in which the imaginary part is zero (or the phase angle is 0 or 180 degrees or pi radians) is automatically converted to a real number.

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The word `inf`

represents the mathematical concept of *infinity*.
Calc actually has three slightly different infinity-like values:
`inf`

, `uinf`

, and `nan`

. These are just regular
variable names (see section 6.14 Variables); you should avoid using these
names for your own variables because Calc gives them special
treatment. Infinities, like all variable names, are normally
entered using algebraic entry.

Mathematically speaking, it is not rigorously correct to treat
"infinity" as if it were a number, but mathematicians often do
so informally. When they say that ``1 / inf = 0`', what they
really mean is that 1 / x, as x becomes larger and
larger, becomes arbitrarily close to zero. So you can imagine
that if x got "all the way to infinity," then 1 / x
would go all the way to zero. Similarly, when they say that
``exp(inf) = inf`', they mean that
exp(x) grows without
bound as x grows. The symbol ``-inf`' likewise stands
for an infinitely negative real value; for example, we say that
``exp(-inf) = 0`'. You can have an infinity pointing in any
direction on the complex plane: ``sqrt(-inf) = i inf`'.

The same concept of limits can be used to define 1 / 0. We
really want the value that 1 / x approaches as x
approaches zero. But if all we have is 1 / 0, we can't
tell which direction x was coming from. If x was
positive and decreasing toward zero, then we should say that
``1 / 0 = inf`'. But if x was negative and increasing
toward zero, the answer is ``1 / 0 = -inf`'. In fact, x
could be an imaginary number, giving the answer ``i inf`' or
``-i inf`'. Calc uses the special symbol ``uinf`' to mean
*undirected infinity*, i.e., a value which is infinitely
large but with an unknown sign (or direction on the complex plane).

Calc actually has three modes that say how infinities are handled.
Normally, infinities never arise from calculations that didn't
already have them. Thus, 1 / 0 is treated simply as an
error and left unevaluated. The `m i` (`calc-infinite-mode`

)
command (see section 8.4.4 Infinite Mode) enables a mode in which
1 / 0 evaluates to `uinf`

instead. There is also
an alternative type of infinite mode which says to treat zeros
as if they were positive, so that ``1 / 0 = inf`'. While this
is less mathematically correct, it may be the answer you want in
some cases.

Since all infinities are "as large" as all others, Calc simplifies,
e.g., ``5 inf`' to ``inf`'. Another example is
``5 - inf = -inf`', where the ``-inf`' is so large that
adding a finite number like five to it does not affect it.
Note that ``a - inf`' also results in ``-inf`'; Calc assumes
that variables like `a`

always stand for finite quantities.
Just to show that infinities really are all the same size,
note that ``sqrt(inf) = inf^2 = exp(inf) = inf`' in Calc's
notation.

It's not so easy to define certain formulas like ``0 * inf`' and
``inf / inf`'. Depending on where these zeros and infinities
came from, the answer could be literally anything. The latter
formula could be the limit of x / x (giving a result of one),
or 2 x / x (giving two), or x^2 / x (giving `inf`

),
or x / x^2 (giving zero). Calc uses the symbol `nan`

to represent such an *indeterminate* value. (The name "nan"
comes from analogy with the "NAN" concept of IEEE standard
arithmetic; it stands for "Not A Number." This is somewhat of a
misnomer, since `nan`

*does* stand for some number or
infinity, it's just that *which* number it stands for
cannot be determined.) In Calc's notation, ``0 * inf = nan`'
and ``inf / inf = nan`'. A few other common indeterminate
expressions are ``inf - inf`' and ``inf ^ 0`'. Also,
``0 / 0 = nan`' if you have turned on "infinite mode"
(as described above).

Infinities are especially useful as parts of *intervals*.
See section 6.12 Interval Forms.

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The *vector* data type is flexible and general. A vector is simply a
list of zero or more data objects. When these objects are numbers, the
whole is a vector in the mathematical sense. When these objects are
themselves vectors of equal (nonzero) length, the whole is a *matrix*.
A vector which is not a matrix is referred to here as a *plain vector*.

A vector is displayed as a list of values separated by commas and enclosed
in square brackets: ``[1, 2, 3]`'. Thus the following is a 2 row by
3 column matrix: ``[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]`'. Vectors, like complex
numbers, are entered as incomplete objects. See section 6.13 Incomplete Objects.
During algebraic entry, vectors are entered all at once in the usual
brackets-and-commas form. Matrices may be entered algebraically as nested
vectors, or using the shortcut notation ``[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]`',
with rows separated by semicolons. The commas may usually be omitted
when entering vectors: ``[1 2 3]`'. Curly braces may be used in
place of brackets: ``{1, 2, 3}`', but the commas are required in
this case.

Traditional vector and matrix arithmetic is also supported; see section 9.1 Basic Arithmetic and see section 11. Vector/Matrix Functions. Many other operations are applied to vectors element-wise. For example, the complex conjugate of a vector is a vector of the complex conjugates of its elements.

Algebraic functions for building vectors include ``vec(a, b, c)`'
to build ``[a, b, c]`', ``cvec(a, n, m)`' to build an
`n`x`m`
matrix of ``a`'s, and ``index(n)`' to build a vector of integers
from 1 to ``n`'.

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Character strings are not a special data type in the Calculator.
Rather, a string is represented simply as a vector all of whose
elements are integers in the range 0 to 255 (ASCII codes). You can
enter a string at any time by pressing the `"` key. Quotation
marks and backslashes are written ``\"`' and ``\\`', respectively,
inside strings. Other notations introduced by backslashes are:

\a 7 \^@ 0 \b 8 \^a-z 1-26 \e 27 \^[ 27 \f 12 \^\\ 28 \n 10 \^] 29 \r 13 \^^ 30 \t 9 \^_ 31 \^? 127 |

Finally, a backslash followed by three octal digits produces any character from its ASCII code.

Strings are normally displayed in vector-of-integers form. The
`d "` (`calc-display-strings`

) command toggles a mode in
which any vectors of small integers are displayed as quoted strings
instead.

The backslash notations shown above are also used for displaying
strings. Characters 128 and above are not translated by Calc; unless
you have an Emacs modified for 8-bit fonts, these will show up in
backslash-octal-digits notation. For characters below 32, and
for character 127, Calc uses the backslash-letter combination if
there is one, or otherwise uses a ``\^`' sequence.

The only Calc feature that uses strings is *compositions*;
see section 8.8.7 Compositions. Strings also provide a convenient
way to do conversions between ASCII characters and integers.

There is a `string`

function which provides a different display
format for strings. Basically, ``string( s)`', where

Control characters are displayed somewhat differently by `string`

.
Characters below 32, and character 127, are shown using ``^`' notation
(same as shown above, but without the backslash). The quote and
backslash characters are left alone, as are characters 128 and above.

The `bstring`

function is just like `string`

except that
the resulting string is breakable across multiple lines if it doesn't
fit all on one line. Potential break points occur at every space
character in the string.

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*HMS* stands for Hours-Minutes-Seconds; when used as an angular
argument, the interpretation is Degrees-Minutes-Seconds. All functions
that operate on angles accept HMS forms. These are interpreted as
degrees regardless of the current angular mode. It is also possible to
use HMS as the angular mode so that calculated angles are expressed in
degrees, minutes, and seconds.

The default format for HMS values is
`` hours@ mins' secs"`'. During entry, the letters
`

HMS forms can be added and subtracted. When they are added to numbers, the numbers are interpreted according to the current angular mode. HMS forms can also be multiplied and divided by real numbers. Dividing two HMS forms produces a real-valued ratio of the two angles.

Just for kicks, `M-x calc-time` pushes the current time of day on
the stack as an HMS form.

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A *date form* represents a date and possibly an associated time.
Simple date arithmetic is supported: Adding a number to a date
produces a new date shifted by that many days; adding an HMS form to
a date shifts it by that many hours. Subtracting two date forms
computes the number of days between them (represented as a simple
number). Many other operations, such as multiplying two date forms,
are nonsensical and are not allowed by Calc.

Date forms are entered and displayed enclosed in ``< >`' brackets.
The default format is, e.g., ``<Wed Jan 9, 1991>`' for dates,
or ``<3:32:20pm Wed Jan 9, 1991>`' for dates with times.
Input is flexible; date forms can be entered in any of the usual
notations for dates and times. See section 8.7.7 Date Formats.

Date forms are stored internally as numbers, specifically the number
of days since midnight on the morning of January 1 of the year 1 AD.
If the internal number is an integer, the form represents a date only;
if the internal number is a fraction or float, the form represents
a date and time. For example, ``<6:00am Wed Jan 9, 1991>`'
is represented by the number 726842.25. The standard precision of
12 decimal digits is enough to ensure that a (reasonable) date and
time can be stored without roundoff error.

If the current precision is greater than 12, date forms will keep additional digits in the seconds position. For example, if the precision is 15, the seconds will keep three digits after the decimal point. Decreasing the precision below 12 may cause the time part of a date form to become inaccurate. This can also happen if astronomically high years are used, though this will not be an issue in everyday (or even everymillenium) use. Note that date forms without times are stored as exact integers, so roundoff is never an issue for them.

You can use the `v p` (`calc-pack`

) and `v u`
(`calc-unpack`

) commands to get at the numerical representation
of a date form. See section 11.1 Packing and Unpacking.

Date forms can go arbitrarily far into the future or past. Negative
year numbers represent years BC. Calc uses a combination of the
Gregorian and Julian calendars, following the history of Great
Britain and the British colonies. This is the same calendar that
is used by the `cal`

program in most Unix implementations.

Some historical background: The Julian calendar was created by Julius Caesar in the year 46 BC as an attempt to fix the gradual drift caused by the lack of leap years in the calendar used until that time. The Julian calendar introduced an extra day in all years divisible by four. After some initial confusion, the calendar was adopted around the year we call 8 AD. Some centuries later it became apparent that the Julian year of 365.25 days was itself not quite right. In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar, which added the new rule that years divisible by 100, but not by 400, were not to be considered leap years despite being divisible by four. Many countries delayed adoption of the Gregorian calendar because of religious differences; in Britain it was put off until the year 1752, by which time the Julian calendar had fallen eleven days behind the true seasons. So the switch to the Gregorian calendar in early September 1752 introduced a discontinuity: The day after Sep 2, 1752 is Sep 14, 1752. Calc follows this convention. To take another example, Russia waited until 1918 before adopting the new calendar, and thus needed to remove thirteen days (between Feb 1, 1918 and Feb 14, 1918). This means that Calc's reckoning will be inconsistent with Russian history between 1752 and 1918, and similarly for various other countries.

Today's timekeepers introduce an occasional "leap second" as
well, but Calc does not take these minor effects into account.
(If it did, it would have to report a non-integer number of days
between, say, ``<12:00am Mon Jan 1, 1900>`' and
``<12:00am Sat Jan 1, 2000>`'.)

Calc uses the Julian calendar for all dates before the year 1752,
including dates BC when the Julian calendar technically had not
yet been invented. Thus the claim that day number *-10000* is
called "August 16, 28 BC" should be taken with a grain of salt.

Please note that there is no "year 0"; the day before
``<Sat Jan 1, +1>`' is ``<Fri Dec 31, -1>`'. These are
days 0 and *-1* respectively in Calc's internal numbering scheme.

Another day counting system in common use is, confusingly, also
called "Julian." It was invented in 1583 by Joseph Justus
Scaliger, who named it in honor of his father Julius Caesar
Scaliger. For obscure reasons he chose to start his day
numbering on Jan 1, 4713 BC at noon, which in Calc's scheme
is *-1721423.5* (recall that Calc starts at midnight instead
of noon). Thus to convert a Calc date code obtained by
unpacking a date form into a Julian day number, simply add
1721423.5. The Julian code for ``6:00am Jan 9, 1991`'
is 2448265.75. The built-in `t J` command performs
this conversion for you.

The Unix operating system measures time as an integer number of
seconds since midnight, Jan 1, 1970. To convert a Calc date
value into a Unix time stamp, first subtract 719164 (the code
for ``<Jan 1, 1970>`'), then multiply by 86400 (the number of
seconds in a day) and press `R` to round to the nearest
integer. If you have a date form, you can simply subtract the
day ``<Jan 1, 1970>`' instead of unpacking and subtracting
719164. Likewise, divide by 86400 and add ``<Jan 1, 1970>`'
to convert from Unix time to a Calc date form. (Note that
Unix normally maintains the time in the GMT time zone; you may
need to subtract five hours to get New York time, or eight hours
for California time. The same is usually true of Julian day
counts.) The built-in `t U` command performs these
conversions.

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A *modulo form* is a real number which is taken modulo (i.e., within
an integer multiple of) some value M. Arithmetic modulo M
often arises in number theory. Modulo forms are written
`*a* `mod` *M*',
where a and M are real numbers or HMS forms, and
0 <= a < `M`.
In many applications a and M will be
integers but this is not required.

Modulo forms are not to be confused with the modulo operator ``%`'.
The expression ``27 % 10`' means to compute 27 modulo 10 to produce
the result 7. Further computations treat this 7 as just a regular integer.
The expression ``27 mod 10`' produces the result ``7 mod 10`';
further computations with this value are again reduced modulo 10 so that
the result always lies in the desired range.

When two modulo forms with identical M's are added or multiplied, the Calculator simply adds or multiplies the values, then reduces modulo M. If one argument is a modulo form and the other a plain number, the plain number is treated like a compatible modulo form. It is also possible to raise modulo forms to powers; the result is the value raised to the power, then reduced modulo M. (When all values involved are integers, this calculation is done much more efficiently than actually computing the power and then reducing.)

Two modulo forms `*a* `mod` *M*' and `*b* `mod` *M*'
can be divided if a, b, and M are all
integers. The result is the modulo form which, when multiplied by
`*b* `mod` *M*', produces `*a* `mod` *M*'. If
there is no solution to this equation (which can happen only when
M is non-prime), or if any of the arguments are non-integers, the
division is left in symbolic form. Other operations, such as square
roots, are not yet supported for modulo forms. (Note that, although
``(`*a* `mod` *M*`)^.5`' will compute a "modulo square root"
in the sense of reducing
sqrt(a) modulo M, this is not a
useful definition from the number-theoretical point of view.)

To create a modulo form during numeric entry, press the shift-`M`
key to enter the word ``mod`'. As a special convenience, pressing
shift-`M` a second time automatically enters the value of M
that was most recently used before. During algebraic entry, either
type ``mod`' by hand or press `M-m` (that's ` META-m`).
Once again, pressing this a second time enters the current modulo.

You can also use `v p` and `%` to modify modulo forms.
See section 11.2 Building Vectors. See section 9.1 Basic Arithmetic.

It is possible to mix HMS forms and modulo forms. For example, an
HMS form modulo 24 could be used to manipulate clock times; an HMS
form modulo 360 would be suitable for angles. Making the modulo M
also be an HMS form eliminates troubles that would arise if the angular
mode were inadvertently set to Radians, in which case
``2@ 0' 0" mod 24`' would be interpreted as two degrees modulo
24 radians!

Modulo forms cannot have variables or formulas for components. If you
enter the formula ``(x + 2) mod 5`', Calc propagates the modulus
to each of the coefficients: ``(1 mod 5) x + (2 mod 5)`'.

The algebraic function ``makemod(a, m)`' builds the modulo form
``a mod m`'.

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An *error form* is a number with an associated standard
deviation, as in ``2.3 +/- 0.12`'. The notation
`*x* `+/-`
sigma' stands for an uncertain value which follows a normal or
Gaussian distribution of mean x and standard deviation or
"error"
sigma. Both the mean and the error can be either numbers or
formulas. Generally these are real numbers but the mean may also be
complex. If the error is negative or complex, it is changed to its
absolute value. An error form with zero error is converted to a
regular number by the Calculator.

All arithmetic and transcendental functions accept error forms as input.
Operations on the mean-value part work just like operations on regular
numbers. The error part for any function f(x) (such as
sin(x))
is defined by the error of x times the derivative of f
evaluated at the mean value of x. For a two-argument function
f(x,y) (such as addition) the error is the square root of the sum
of the squares of the errors due to x and y.
Note that this
definition assumes the errors in x and y are uncorrelated.
A side effect of this definition is that ``(2 +/- 1) * (2 +/- 1)`'
is not the same as ``(2 +/- 1)^2`'; the former represents the product
of two independent values which happen to have the same probability
distributions, and the latter is the product of one random value with itself.
The former will produce an answer with less error, since on the average
the two independent errors can be expected to cancel out.

Consult a good text on error analysis for a discussion of the proper use
of standard deviations. Actual errors often are neither Gaussian-distributed
nor uncorrelated, and the above formulas are valid only when errors
are small. As an example, the error arising from
``sin(`*x* `+/-`
*sigma*`)`' is
`
*sigma* `abs(cos(`*x*`))`'. When x is close to zero,
cos(x) is
close to one so the error in the sine is close to
sigma; this makes sense, since
sin(x) is approximately x near zero, so a given
error in x will produce about the same error in the sine. Likewise,
near 90 degrees
cos(x) is nearly zero and so the computed error is
small: The sine curve is nearly flat in that region, so an error in x
has relatively little effect on the value of
sin(x). However, consider
``sin(90 +/- 1000)`'. The cosine of 90 is zero, so Calc will report
zero error! We get an obviously wrong result because we have violated
the small-error approximation underlying the error analysis. If the error
in x had been small, the error in
sin(x) would indeed have been negligible.

To enter an error form during regular numeric entry, use the `p`
("plus-or-minus") key to type the ``+/-`' symbol. (If you try actually
typing ``+/-`' the `+` key will be interpreted as the Calculator's
`+` command!) Within an algebraic formula, you can press `M-p` to
type the ``+/-`' symbol, or type it out by hand.

Error forms and complex numbers can be mixed; the formulas shown above are used for complex numbers, too; note that if the error part evaluates to a complex number its absolute value (or the square root of the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the two error contributions) is used. Mathematically, this corresponds to a radially symmetric Gaussian distribution of numbers on the complex plane. However, note that Calc considers an error form with real components to represent a real number, not a complex distribution around a real mean.

Error forms may also be composed of HMS forms. For best results, both the mean and the error should be HMS forms if either one is.

The algebraic function ``sdev(a, b)`' builds the error form ``a +/- b`'.

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An *interval* is a subset of consecutive real numbers. For example,
the interval ``[2 .. 4]`' represents all the numbers from 2 to 4,
inclusive. If you multiply it by the interval ``[0.5 .. 2]`' you
obtain ``[1 .. 8]`'. This calculation represents the fact that if
you multiply some number in the range ``[2 .. 4]`' by some other
number in the range ``[0.5 .. 2]`', your result will lie in the range
from 1 to 8. Interval arithmetic is used to get a worst-case estimate
of the possible range of values a computation will produce, given the
set of possible values of the input.

Calc supports several varieties of intervals, including *closed*
intervals of the type shown above, *open* intervals such as
``(2 .. 4)`', which represents the range of numbers from 2 to 4
*exclusive*, and *semi-open* intervals in which one end
uses a round parenthesis and the other a square bracket. In mathematical
terms,
``[2 .. 4]`' means 2 <= x <= 4, whereas
``[2 .. 4)`' represents 2 <= x < 4,
``(2 .. 4]`' represents 2 < x <= 4, and
``(2 .. 4)`' represents 2 < x < 4.

The lower and upper limits of an interval must be either real numbers
(or HMS or date forms), or symbolic expressions which are assumed to be
real-valued, or ``-inf`' and ``inf`'. In general the lower limit
must be less than the upper limit. A closed interval containing only
one value, ``[3 .. 3]`', is converted to a plain number (3)
automatically. An interval containing no values at all (such as
``[3 .. 2]`' or ``[2 .. 2)`') can be represented but is not
guaranteed to behave well when used in arithmetic. Note that the
interval ``[3 .. inf)`' represents all real numbers greater than
or equal to 3, and ``(-inf .. inf)`' represents all real numbers.
In fact, ``[-inf .. inf]`' represents all real numbers including
the real infinities.

Intervals are entered in the notation shown here, either as algebraic
formulas, or using incomplete forms. (See section 6.13 Incomplete Objects.)
In algebraic formulas, multiple periods in a row are collected from
left to right, so that ``1...1e2`' is interpreted as ``1.0 .. 1e2`'
rather than ``1 .. 0.1e2`'. Add spaces or zeros if you want to
get the other interpretation. If you omit the lower or upper limit,
a default of ``-inf`' or ``inf`' (respectively) is furnished.

"Infinite mode" also affects operations on intervals
(see section 6.5 Infinities). Calc will always introduce an open infinity,
as in ``1 / (0 .. 2] = [0.5 .. inf)`'. But closed infinities,
``1 / [0 .. 2] = [0.5 .. inf]`', arise only in infinite mode;
otherwise they are left unevaluated. Note that the "direction" of
a zero is not an issue in this case since the zero is always assumed
to be continuous with the rest of the interval. For intervals that
contain zero inside them Calc is forced to give the result,
``1 / (-2 .. 2) = [-inf .. inf]`'.

While it may seem that intervals and error forms are similar, they are
based on entirely different concepts of inexact quantities. An error
form `*x* `+/-`
*sigma*' means a variable is random, and its value could
be anything but is "probably" within one
*sigma* of the mean value x.
An interval ``[`*a* `..` *b*`]`' means a variable's value
is unknown, but guaranteed to lie in the specified range. Error forms
are statistical or "average case" approximations; interval arithmetic
tends to produce "worst case" bounds on an answer.

Intervals may not contain complex numbers, but they may contain HMS forms or date forms.

See section 11.6 Set Operations using Vectors, for commands that interpret interval forms as subsets of the set of real numbers.

The algebraic function ``intv(n, a, b)`' builds an interval form
from ``a`' to ``b`'; ``n`' is an integer code which must
be 0 for ``(..)`', 1 for ``(..]`', 2 for ``[..)`', or
3 for ``[..]`'.

Please note that in fully rigorous interval arithmetic, care would be
taken to make sure that the computation of the lower bound rounds toward
minus infinity, while upper bound computations round toward plus
infinity. Calc's arithmetic always uses a round-to-nearest mode,
which means that roundoff errors could creep into an interval
calculation to produce intervals slightly smaller than they ought to
be. For example, entering ``[1..2]`' and pressing `Q 2 ^`
should yield the interval ``[1..2]`' again, but in fact it yields the
(slightly too small) interval ``[1..1.9999999]`' due to roundoff
error.

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When `(` or `[` is typed to begin entering a complex number or
vector, respectively, the effect is to push an *incomplete* complex
number or vector onto the stack. The `,` key adds the value(s) at
the top of the stack onto the current incomplete object. The `)`
and `]` keys "close" the incomplete object after adding any values
on the top of the stack in front of the incomplete object.

As a result, the sequence of keystrokes `[ 2 , 3 RET 2 * , 9 ]`
pushes the vector `

If several values lie on the stack in front of the incomplete object,
all are collected and appended to the object. Thus the `,` key
is redundant: `[ 2 RET 3 RET 2 * 9 ]`. Some people
prefer the equivalent

As a special case, typing `,` immediately after `(`, `[`, or
`,` adds a zero or duplicates the preceding value in the list being
formed. Typing `DEL` during incomplete entry removes the last item
from the list.

The `;` key is used in the same way as `,` to create polar complex
numbers: `( 1 ; 2 )`. When entering a vector, `;` is useful for
creating a matrix. In particular, `[ [ 1 , 2 ; 3 , 4 ; 5 , 6 ] ]` is
equivalent to `[ [ 1 , 2 ] , [ 3 , 4 ] , [ 5 , 6 ] ]`.

Incomplete entry is also used to enter intervals. For example,
`[ 2 .. 4 )` enters a semi-open interval. Note that when you type
the first period, it will be interpreted as a decimal point, but when
you type a second period immediately afterward, it is re-interpreted as
part of the interval symbol. Typing `..` corresponds to executing
the `calc-dots`

command.

If you find incomplete entry distracting, you may wish to enter vectors and complex numbers as algebraic formulas by pressing the apostrophe key.

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A *variable* is somewhere between a storage register on a conventional
calculator, and a variable in a programming language. (In fact, a Calc
variable is really just an Emacs Lisp variable that contains a Calc number
or formula.) A variable's name is normally composed of letters and digits.
Calc also allows apostrophes and `#`

signs in variable names.
The Calc variable `foo`

corresponds to the Emacs Lisp variable
`var-foo`

. Commands like `s s` (`calc-store`

) that operate
on variables can be made to use any arbitrary Lisp variable simply by
backspacing over the ``var-`' prefix in the minibuffer.

In a command that takes a variable name, you can either type the full
name of a variable, or type a single digit to use one of the special
convenience variables `var-q0`

through `var-q9`

. For example,
`3 s s 2` stores the number 3 in variable `var-q2`

, and
`3 s s foo RET` stores that number in variable

`var-foo`

.
To push a variable itself (as opposed to the variable's value) on the
stack, enter its name as an algebraic expression using the apostrophe
(`'`) key. Variable names in algebraic formulas implicitly have
``var-`' prefixed to their names. The ``#`' character in variable
names used in algebraic formulas corresponds to a dash ``-`' in the
Lisp variable name. If the name contains any dashes, the prefix ``var-`'
is *not* automatically added. Thus the two formulas ``foo + 1`'
and ``var#foo + 1`' both refer to the same variable.

The `=` (`calc-evaluate`

) key "evaluates" a formula by
replacing all variables in the formula which have been given values by a
`calc-store`

or `calc-let`

command by their stored values.
Other variables are left alone. Thus a variable that has not been
stored acts like an abstract variable in algebra; a variable that has
been stored acts more like a register in a traditional calculator.
With a positive numeric prefix argument, `=` evaluates the top
`n` stack entries; with a negative argument, `=` evaluates
the `n`th stack entry.

A few variables are called *special constants*. Their names are
``e`', ``pi`', ``i`', ``phi`', and ``gamma`'.
(See section 10. Scientific Functions.) When they are evaluated with `=`,
their values are calculated if necessary according to the current precision
or complex polar mode. If you wish to use these symbols for other purposes,
simply undefine or redefine them using `calc-store`

.

The variables ``inf`', ``uinf`', and ``nan`' stand for
infinite or indeterminate values. It's best not to use them as
regular variables, since Calc uses special algebraic rules when
it manipulates them. Calc displays a warning message if you store
a value into any of these special variables.

See section 14. Storing and Recalling, for a discussion of commands dealing with variables.

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When you press the apostrophe key you may enter any expression or formula in algebraic form. (Calc uses the terms "expression" and "formula" interchangeably.) An expression is built up of numbers, variable names, and function calls, combined with various arithmetic operators. Parentheses may be used to indicate grouping. Spaces are ignored within formulas, except that spaces are not permitted within variable names or numbers. Arithmetic operators, in order from highest to lowest precedence, and with their equivalent function names, are:

``_`' [`subscr`

] (subscripts);

postfix ``%`' [`percent`

] (as in ``25% = 0.25`');

prefix ``+`' and ``-`' [`neg`

] (as in ``-x`')
and prefix ``!`' [`lnot`

] (logical "not," as in ``!x`');

``+/-`' [`sdev`

] (the standard deviation symbol) and
``mod`' [`makemod`

] (the symbol for modulo forms);

postfix ``!`' [`fact`

] (factorial, as in ``n!`')
and postfix ``!!`' [`dfact`

] (double factorial);

``^`' [`pow`

] (raised-to-the-power-of);

``*`' [`mul`

];

``/`' [`div`

], ``%`' [`mod`

] (modulo), and
``\`' [`idiv`

] (integer division);

infix ``+`' [`add`

] and ``-`' [`sub`

] (as in ``x-y`');

``|`' [`vconcat`

] (vector concatenation);

relations ``=`' [`eq`

], ``!=`' [`neq`

], ``<`' [`lt`

],
``>`' [`gt`

], ``<=`' [`leq`

], and ``>=`' [`geq`

];

``&&`' [`land`

] (logical "and");

``||`' [`lor`

] (logical "or");

the C-style "if" operator ``a?b:c`' [`if`

];

``!!!`' [`pnot`

] (rewrite pattern "not");

``&&&`' [`pand`

] (rewrite pattern "and");

``|||`' [`por`

] (rewrite pattern "or");

``:=`' [`assign`

] (for assignments and rewrite rules);

``::`' [`condition`

] (rewrite pattern condition);

``=>`' [`evalto`

].

Note that, unlike in usual computer notation, multiplication binds more
strongly than division: ``a*b/c*d`' is equivalent to
(a*b)/(c*d).

The multiplication sign ``*`' may be omitted in many cases. In particular,
if the righthand side is a number, variable name, or parenthesized
expression, the ``*`' may be omitted. Implicit multiplication has the
same precedence as the explicit ``*`' operator. The one exception to
the rule is that a variable name followed by a parenthesized expression,
as in ``f(x)`',
is interpreted as a function call, not an implicit ``*`'. In many
cases you must use a space if you omit the ``*`': ``2a`' is the
same as ``2*a`', and ``a b`' is the same as ``a*b`', but ``ab`'
is a variable called `ab`

, *not* the product of ``a`' and
``b`'! Also note that ``f (x)`' is still a function call.

The rules are slightly different for vectors written with square brackets.
In vectors, the space character is interpreted (like the comma) as a
separator of elements of the vector. Thus ``[ 2a b+c d ]`' is
equivalent to ``[2*a, b+c, d]`', whereas ``2a b+c d`' is equivalent
to ``2*a*b + c*d`'.
Note that spaces around the brackets, and around explicit commas, are
ignored. To force spaces to be interpreted as multiplication you can
enclose a formula in parentheses as in ``[(a b) 2(c d)]`', which is
interpreted as ``[a*b, 2*c*d]`'. An implicit comma is also inserted
between ``][`', as in the matrix ``[[1 2][3 4]]`'.

Vectors that contain commas (not embedded within nested parentheses or
brackets) do not treat spaces specially: ``[a b, 2 c d]`' is a vector
of two elements. Also, if it would be an error to treat spaces as
separators, but not otherwise, then Calc will ignore spaces:
``[a - b]`' is a vector of one element, but ``[a -b]`' is
a vector of two elements. Finally, vectors entered with curly braces
instead of square brackets do not give spaces any special treatment.
When Calc displays a vector that does not contain any commas, it will
insert parentheses if necessary to make the meaning clear:
``[(a b)]`'.

The expression ``5%-2`' is ambiguous; is this five-percent minus two,
or five modulo minus-two? Calc always interprets the leftmost symbol as
an infix operator preferentially (modulo, in this case), so you would
need to write ``(5%)-2`' to get the former interpretation.

A function call is, e.g., ``sin(1+x)`'. Function names follow the same
rules as variable names except that the default prefix ``calcFunc-`' is
used (instead of ``var-`') for the internal Lisp form.
Most mathematical Calculator commands like
`calc-sin`

have function equivalents like `sin`

.
If no Lisp function is defined for a function called by a formula, the
call is left as it is during algebraic manipulation: ``f(x+y)`' is
left alone. Beware that many innocent-looking short names like `in`

and `re`

have predefined meanings which could surprise you; however,
single letters or single letters followed by digits are always safe to
use for your own function names. See section Index of Algebraic Functions.

In the documentation for particular commands, the notation `H S`
(`calc-sinh`

) [`sinh`

] means that the key sequence `H S`, the
command `M-x calc-sinh`, and the algebraic function `sinh(x)`

all
represent the same operation.

Commands that interpret ("parse") text as algebraic formulas include
algebraic entry (`'`), editing commands like ``` which parse
the contents of the editing buffer when you finish, the `M-# g`
and `M-# r` commands, the `C-y` command, the X window system
"paste" mouse operation, and Embedded Mode. All of these operations
use the same rules for parsing formulas; in particular, language modes
(see section 8.8 Language Modes) affect them all in the same way.

When you read a large amount of text into the Calculator (say a vector
which represents a big set of rewrite rules; see section 12.11 Rewrite Rules),
you may wish to include comments in the text. Calc's formula parser
ignores the symbol ``%%`' and anything following it on a line:

[ a + b, %% the sum of "a" and "b" c + d, %% last line is coming up: e + f ] |

This is parsed exactly the same as ``[ a + b, c + d, e + f ]`'.

See section 8.8.8 Syntax Tables, for a way to create your own operators and other input notations. See section 8.8.7 Compositions, for a way to create new display formats.

See section 12. Algebra, for commands for manipulating formulas symbolically.

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